Twelve people have walked on the surface of the moon.
The twelve were part of NASA’s Apollo Programme which ran from 1961 to 1972. The first person walked on the moon on the 20th of July 1969.
For more in depth information on the Apollo Mission, please click on this link.
The twelve astronauts are named below. Click on their names for their individual Wikipedia pages.
For a brief history of the first moon landing, and some details of the heroism and ingenuity of the astronauts involved, please see the video below.
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Stomach (or gastric) acid is a mixture of hydrochloric acid, potassium chloride and sodium chloride. An acid’s strength is measured on the pH scale. The range of acid strength goes from 0(strongest) to 6(weakest). Stomach acid measures between 1 and 3 on this scale, making it quite a strong acid.
The reason the acid doesn’t burn our insides is because the stomach produces mucus to line itself and protect it from the acid. We need acid in our stomachs as this starts the process of breaking our food down(digestion), so it can be absorbed by our bodies.
After the food leaves the stomach and enters the next part of your digestive system, the pancreas releases a bicarbonate which helps to neutralise, or weaken, the acid so it doesn’t damage your insides.
For further reading and facts on the stomach, click on this link.
For a video that explains the part of the stomach in the digestive system, please see below:
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Fireworks were invented in 7th century China. The Chinese people believed they would ward off evil spirits and bring happiness and good luck.
Nowadays fireworks are used all around the world to celebrate various events. In the United Kingdom they are traditionally used on Bonfire Night, the 5th of November, to celebrate the failed Gunpowder Plot of 1605.
Please see below video on how fireworks work.
For further reading on the history of fireworks please click on this link.
If you would like to try some indoor fireworks, please see the link below.
The first animal to orbit the Earth was a dog called Laika. She was launched into space aboard Sputnik 2 in 1957. She was a stray dog from the streets of Moscow in Russia. In the early days of space flight animals were used to test the safety of the technology, before humans tried it.
For further reading on the history of animals in space click here.
For an animation of Laika’s story, please see below:
For further reading on Laika’s story, please see the link below.
There is a special event this weekend to celebrate the 60th anniversary of Laika’s flight. Please click here for details.
A diamond is a precious stone and is the hardest naturally occurring material known. It is made from carbon which can come in different forms depending on how its atoms are arranged. A diamond has a lattice structure in which the atoms are bonded together very strongly.
Diamonds are formed deep underground in the earth’s mantle, around a 100 miles down. They are formed under high pressure and temperatures and can take 1 to 3 billion years to form. They are brought closer to the surface by deep volcanic eruptions and are then mined by people.
For further reading and some fun facts on diamonds please click this link.
For a video explanation, please see below.
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Bees make honey as a way of storing food for themselves. They need to do this for when their usual food sources are in short supply. Flowering plants are more abundant in spring and summer, so bees make honey during this time to see them through the winter, when there are much fewer flowers.
Honey is an ideal way to store their food supply, as it doesn’t go bad. This is because it has a high sugar content, which also means it provides a lot of energy for the busy bees!
For further reading on bees, please click this link to the very informative buzzaboutbees.net
For a video explanation of why, as well as how, bees make honey, please see below.
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A hurricane is a large storm characterised by very strong winds. If a tropical cyclone has winds over 74mph(119km/h) and it forms in the Atlantic Ocean, it is known as a hurricane. There are 5 categories of hurricane numbered 1 to 5. The most severe category 5 hurricanes can have winds up to 200mph(320km/h). The hurricane develops around an area of low pressure(the eye) and the winds rotate in an anti clockwise direction around this point. This is what they look like from space.
A hurricane is specific to the area around the USA. A tropical storm formed in the Indian Ocean is called a cyclone, and one formed in the Western Pacific Ocean is called a typhoon.
For more in depth information on hurricanes, please see the following link:
An excellent page from Weather Wiz Kids
For a video on hurricanes, please see below.
If your children have shown an interest in the weather, please see the book below(links to Amazon).
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